Best practices for fish biosecurity, well-being and sustainable aquaculture




Disease, Sustainability, Aquaculture control, Best practices, Health, Fish


Since its inception ~6000 years ago, aquaculture has evolved to enable its survival and growth to become a major contributor of protein of high nutritional value for human consumption, thereby improving food security and reducing poverty.  Best practices have been established and updated to reflect developments as they occurred.  Currently, best practices reflect all aspects of production from site selection and especially location in terms of proximity to other farms, construction and maintenance of the facilities, management practices, stock selection and acquisition, nutrition, biosecurity, disease control, and processing.  Concerns about aquaculture continue to be addressed, and include the effects of pollution, such as from uneaten food and feces on the aquatic environment, and the needs of other users of waterways, such as for recreation/tourism. Best practices have been formalized into accredited standards, such as ISO 9000, and form the basis of Certification by the Global Seafood Alliance. With the intensification of aquaculture, the provision of total food requirements became necessary for the farmed stock.  This has led the development of feeds capable of providing all the nutritional needs of the farmed species. Concerns about the sustainability of some feed components, such as protein from trash fish, are ongoing.  Disease management has progressed from a curative approach (= therapy) with chemicals/antibiotics to prophylaxis with vaccines, probiotics and plant products.  Best practices encompass the most up to date technology, including engineering, life sciences and nanotechnology.  For the future, aquaculture is likely to remain at the forefront of ingenuity with the goal of increasing the contribution to human nutrition.


Abboud, Y., Saffaj, T., Chagraoui, A., El Bouari, A., Brouzi, K. et al. (2014) Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of copper oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) produced using brown alga extract (Bifurcaria bifurcata). Applied Nanoscience, 4, 571-576.

Acosta, E. (2009) Bioavailability of nanoparticles in nutrient and nutraceutical delivery. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 14(1), 3-15.

Adams, A. (2019). Progress, challenges and opportunities in fish vaccine development. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 90, 210-214.

Ahmad, A.L., Chin, J.Y., Mohd Harun, M.H.Z. & Low, S.C. (2022) Environmental impacts and imperative technologies towards sustainable treatment of aquaculture wastewater: A review. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 46, 102553.

Ahmad, A., Kurniawan, S. B., Abdullah, S. R. S., Othman, A. R., & Hasan, H. A. (2022b) Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in aquaculture effluent: Insight into breeding and rearing activities, alarming impacts, regulations, performance of wastewater treatment unit and future approaches. Chemosphere, 290, 133319.

Aklakur, M. Rather, M.A. & Kumar, N. (2016) Nanodelivery: An emerging avenue for nutraceuticals and drug delivery. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 56, 2352-2361.

Alawode, O., Oluwatayo, I. & Adebowale, A. (2016) Effect of catfish production on welfare of smallholder farmers in Osun State, Nigeria. Journal of Agribusiness and Rural Development, 42(4), 471-481.

Almeida, G.M.F., Makela, K., Laanto, E., Pulkkinen, J., Vielma, J. & Sundberg, L.R. (2019) The fate of bacteriophages in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS)-towards developing phage therapy for RAS. Antibiotics-Basel, 8. Article No. 192.

Alsaggaf, M. S., Diab, A. M., El-Saied, B. E., Tayel, A. A. & Moussa, S. H. (2021) Application of ZnO nanoparticles phycosynthesized with Ulva fasciata extract for preserving peeled shrimp quality. Nanomaterials, 11(2), 385.

Anastasiadi, D. & Piferrer, F (2019) Epimutations in developmental genes underlie the onset of domestication in farmed European sea bass. Molecular Biology & Evolution, 36 (10), 2252-2264.

Anastasiadi, D. & Piferrer, F. (2020). A clockwork fish: Age prediction using DNA methylation-based biomarkers in the European seabass. Molecular Ecology Resources, 20 (2), 387-397. 10.1111/1755-0998.13111

Anastasiadi, D. & Piferrer, F. (2023) Bioinformatic analysis for age prediction using epigenetic clocks: Application to fisheries management and conservation biology. Frontiers in Marine Science, 10 1096909.

Ansai, S., Mochida, K., Fujimoto, S., Mokodongan, D. F., Sumarto, B. K. A. et al. (2021) Genome editing reveals fitness effects of a gene for sexual dichromatism in Sulawesian fishes. Nature Communications,12(1), 1350.

Apines-Amar, M.J.S., Caipang, C.M.A., Lopez, J.D.M., Murillo, M.N.A., Amar, E.C. et al. (2022) Proteus mirabilis (MJA 2.6S) from saline-tolerant tilapia exhibits potent antagonistic activity against Vibrio spp., enhances immunity, controls NH3 levels and improves growth and survival in juvenile giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture Research, 53, 5510-5520.

Aquaculture 4.0 (2019) Applying Industry Strategy to Fisheries Management; Innovation News Network: Congleton, UK.

Arai, K. (2001). Genetic improvement of aquaculture finfish species by chromosome manipulation techniques in Japan. Aquaculture, 197(1-4), 205-228.

Arai, K. & Fujimoto, T. (2018) Chromosome manipulation techniques and applications to aquaculture. Sex Control in Aquaculture, 137-162.

Araujo, G.S., Silva, J.W.A., Moreira, T.S., Maciel, R.L. & Farias, W.R.L. (2011) Cultivo da tilápia do nilo em tanques-rede circulares e quadrangulares em duas densidades de estocagem. Bioscience Journal, 27, 805–812.

Araujo, G.S., Silva, J.W.A., Cotas, J. & Pereira, L. (2022) Fish farming techniques: Current situation and trends. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 10(11), 1598.

Austin, B. & Austin D.A. (2016). Bacterial Fish Pathogens: Disease of Farmed and Wild Fish. 6th edn. Springer Nature, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Austin, B. & Sharifuzzaman, S.M. (2022). Probiotics in Aquaculture. Springer Nature, 1st ed. Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Austin, B., Lawrence A.L., Can., E., Carboni, C., Crockett, J. et al. (2022). Selected topics in sustainable aquaculture research: Current and future focus. Sustainable Aquatic Research,1(2), 74-122.

Avnimelech, Y. (2012). Biofloc technology: practical guide book (2nd ed.). The World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge.

Awad, E. & Austin, B. (2010) Use of lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Diseases, 33, 413-420.

Bai, S.C., Hamidoghli, A. & Bae, J. (2022) Feed additives: an overview. In: Davis DA (ed) Feed and Feeding Practices in Aquaculture, Second Edition. pp 195-229.

Baldassarre, L., Ying, H., Reitzel, A.M., Franzenburg, S. & Fraune, S. (2022) Microbiota mediated plasticity promotes thermal adaptation in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Nature Communications, 13 (1), 3804.

Basavaraju, Y. (2023). Chapter 7 - Monosex population in aquaculture. In Frontiers in Aquaculture Biotechnology, 89-101 (Eds W. S. Lakra, M. Goswami and V. L. Trudeau). Academic Press.

Bazylewska, J., Broda, Z., Mikolajczyk, S. & Pluta, M. (2015) Induction of haploids in the genus Secale L. via androgenesis. BioTechnologia. Journal of Biotechnology Computational Biology and Bionanotechnology, 96(1).

Bertucci, E.M., Mason, M.W., Rhodes, O.E. & Parrott, B.B. (2021) Exposure to ionizing radiation disrupts normal epigenetic aging in Japanese medaka. Aging, 13 (19), 22752-22771.

Biazi, V. & Marques, C. (2023) Industry 4.0-based smart systems in aquaculture: A comprehensive review. Aquacultural Engineering, 103, 102360.

Blancheton, J.P., Attramadal, K.J.K., Michaud, L., d'Orbcastel, E R. & Vadstein, O. (2013) Insight into bacterial population in aquaculture systems and its implication. Aquacultural Engineering, 53, 30–39.

Bouwmeester, H., Dekkers, S., Noordam, M. Y., Hagens, W. I., Bulder, A. S. et al. (2009) Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 53(1), 52-62.

Budd, A. M., Banh, Q. Q., Domingos, J. A. & Jerry, D. R. (2015) Sex control in fish: approaches, challenges and opportunities for aquaculture. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 3(2), 329-355.

Bullock, G.L., Summerfelt, S.T., Noble, A.C., Weber, A.L., Durant, M.D. & Hankins, J.A. 1997 Ozonation of a recirculating rainbow trout culture system: I. Effects on bacterial gill disease and heterotrophic bacteria. Aquaculture 158, 43–55.

Busch, R.A. (1982) Enteric redmouth disease (Yersinia ruckeri). In Les antigenes des micro-organisms pathogenes des poissons, eds. D.P. Anderson, M. Morson, P. Dubourget (Collection Fondation Marcel Merieux, 1982), pp. 201-222.

Can, E., Saka, Ș. & Fırat, K. (2010) Disinfection of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), red porgy (Pagrus pagrus), and common dentex (Dentex dentex) eggs from Sparidae with different disinfectants. Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 16(2), 299-306.

Can, E., Karacalar, U., Saka, S., & Firat, K. (2012). Ozone disinfection of eggs from gilthead seabream Sparus aurata, sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, red porgy, and common dentex Dentex dentex. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 24(2), 129-133.

Carballeira Braña, C.B., Cerbule, K., Senff, P. & Stolz, I.K. (2021) Towards environmental sustainability in marine finfish aquaculture. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8, 666662

Carré, E., Pérot, J., Jauzein, V. & Lopez-Ferber, M. (2018) Impact of suspended particles on UV disinfection of activated sludge effluent with the aim of reclamation. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 22, 87–93.

Carvalho, M. (2022) Larvicultura de Bijupirá. Available online: (accessed on 2 August 2022).

Chen, T. T. (1995) Transgenic fish and aquaculture. In Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 81-89: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.

Chen, H. & Yada, R. (2011) Nanotechnologies in agriculture: new tools for sustainable development. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 22(11), 585-594.

Chen, S., Su, Y. & Hong, W. (2018) Aquaculture of the large yellow croaker. Aquaculture in China: Success stories and modern trends, 297-308.

China Fisheries Association (2020) China Golden Pompano Industry Development Report; China Fisheries Association: Beijing, China.

Chirwa, E. R., Kassam, D., Jere, W. L. & Mtethiwa, A. (2017) A review of the farming of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Malawi: Policy research directions for aquaculture development in Malawi, 9(5), 42–51,

Chizhayeva, A., Amangeldi, A., Oleinikova, Y., Alybaeva, A. & Sadanov, A. (2022) Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics in sustainable development of aquaculture. Aquatic Living Resources, 35. Article No. 10.

Cho, Y.G. & Yigit, Ü. (2022) Biomass gain, feed efficiency and survival rates in Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) cultured in Aquamimicry concept and conventional methods with water exchange and settling chamber. Marine Reports, 1(2), 75-91.

Choudhury, T.G. & Kamilya, D. (2019) Paraprobiotics: an aquaculture perspective. Reviews in Aquaculture, 11, 1258-1270.

Costa, C.M.D., da Cruz, M.G., Lima, T.B.C., Ferreira, L.C., Ventura, A.S. et al. (2020) Efficacy of the essential oils of Mentha piperita, Lippia alba and Zingiber officinale to control the acanthocephalan Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae in Colossoma macropomum. Aquaculture Reports, 18. Article No. 100414.

Das, S. (2014) Chapter 29 - Biotechnological Exploitation of Marine Animals. In Animal Biotechnology, 541-562 (Eds A. S. Verma and A. Singh). San Diego: Academic Press.

Daskalova, A. (2019). Farmed fish welfare: stress, post-mortem muscle metabolism, and stress-related meat quality changes. International Aquatic Research, 11(2), 113-124.

Dawood, M.A.O. (2021) Nutritional immunity of fish intestines: important insights for sustainable aquaculture. Reviews in Aquaculture, 13 (1), 642-663.

Dawood, M.A.O., El Basuini, M.E., Zaineldin, A.I., Yilmaz, S., Hasan, M.T. et al. (2021) Antiparasitic and antibacterial functionality of essential oils: An alternative approach for sustainable aquaculture. Pathogens, 10, Article No. 185.

Deepak, A. P., Vasava, R. J., Elchelwar, V. R., Tandel, D. H. et al. (2020). Aquamimicry: New innovative approach for sustainable development of aquaculture. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 8(2), 1029-1031.

de Jesus-Ayson, E. G. T., Chao, N. H., Chen, C. C., Chen, Y. H., Cheng, C. Y. et al. (2010). Milkfish aquaculture in Asia. Asian Fisheries Society and World Aquaculture Society: Keelung, Taiwan.

Dekkers, J. C. (2004) Commercial application of marker-and gene-assisted selection in livestock: strategies and lessons. Journal of Animal Science, 82(suppl_13), E313-E328.

Delphino, M., Joshi, R. & Alvarez, A.T. (2022) Economic appraisal of using genetics to control Streptococcus agalactiae in Nile tilapia under cage and pond farming system in Malaysia. Scientific Reports, 12. Article No. 8754.

De Paoli-Iseppi, R., Deagle, B.E., McMahon, C.R., Hindell, M.A., Dickinson, J.L. & Jarman, S.N. (2017) Measuring animal age with DNA methylation: From humans to wild animals. Frontiers in Genetics 8.

De Paoli-Iseppi, R., Deagle, B.E., Polanowski, A.M., McMahon, C.R., Dickinson, J.L. et al. (2019) Age estimation in a long-lived seabird (Ardenna tenuirostris) using DNA methylation-based biomarkers. Molecular Ecology Resources, 19 (2), 411-425.

Devi, E. L., Devi, C. P., Kumar, S., Sharma, S. K., Beemrote, A. et al. (2017). Marker assisted selection (MAS) towards generating stress tolerant crop plants. Plant Gene, 11, 205-218.

Dien, L.T., Ngo, T.P.H., Nguyen, T.V., Kayansamruaj, P., Salin, K.R. et al. (2022) Non-antibiotic approaches to combat motile Aeromonas infections in aquaculture: Current state of knowledge and future perspectives. Reviews in Aquaculture, 15(1), 333-366.

Donaldson, E. M. & Devlin, R. H. (1996). Chapter 17 - Uses of Biotechnology to Enhance Production. In Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, Vol. 29, 969-1020 (Eds W. Pennell and B. A. Barton). Elsevier.

Doyle, R.W., Lal, K.K. & Virapat, C. (2019) Domestication and genetic improvement balancing improved production against increased disease risks from inbreeding. Revue Scientifique et Technique (Office International des Epizooties), 38(2) 615-628.

Drangsholt, T.M.K., Gjerde, B., Odegard, J., Finne-Fridell, F, Evenson, O. & Bentsen, H.B. (2011) Quantitative genetics of disease resistance in vaccinated and unvaccinated Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Heredity, 107, 471-477.

Du, Y., Hu, X., Miao, L. & Chen, J. (2022) Current status and development prospects of aquatic vaccines. Frontiers in Immunology, 13, 1040336.

Duff, D.C.B. (1942) The oral immunization of trout against Bacterium salmonicida. Journal of Immunology, 44, 87-94.

Ebeling, J.M., Timmons, M.B. & Bisogni, J.J. (2006) Engineering analysis of the stoichiometry of photoautotrophic, autotrophic, and heterotrophic removal of ammonia–nitrogen in aquaculture systems. Aquaculture, 257, 346–58.

Eding, E.H., Kamstra, A., Verreth, J.A.J., Huisman, E.A. & Klapwijk, A. (2006). Design and operation of nitrifying trickling filters in recirculating aquaculture: a review. Aquacultural Engineering, 34, 234–260.

Embody, G.C. & Hayford, C.O. (1925) The advantage of rearing brook trout fingerlings from selected breeders. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 55, 135-142.

Embregts, C.W.E. & Forlenza, M. (2016) Oral vaccination of fish: Lessons from humans and veterinary species. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 64, 118–137.

Encarnação, P. (2016) Functional feed additives in aquaculture feeds. In: Nates SF (ed) Aquafeed Formulation. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 217-237.

FAO (2002) World Fisheries and Aquaculture; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome, Italy; ISBN 9789251326923.

FAO (2008) FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture. Available online:

FAO (2017) FAO Yearbook. Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics.; FAO: Rome, Italy, 82.

FAO (2020) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2020 Sustainability in Action; FAO: Rome, Italy. FAO (2022) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2022. Towards Blue Transformation. Rome, FAO.

FAO (2023) Statistical Query Panel. Fisheries and Aquaculture. Global aquaculture production quantity (1950-2021). FAO Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Fisheries and Aquaculture Division (NFI), Rome.

Fajardo, C., Martinez-Rodriguez, G., Blasco, J., Mancera, J. M., Thomas, B., & De Donato, M. (2022) Nanotechnology in aquaculture: Applications, perspectives and regulatory challenges. Aquaculture and Fisheries, 7(2), 185-200.

Fatima, R., Priya, M., Indurthi, L., Radhakrishnan, V. & Sudhakaran, R. (2020) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using red algae Portieria hornemannii and its antibacterial activity against fish pathogens. Microbial Pathogenesis, 138, 103780.

Fawcett, D., Verduin, J. J., Shah, M., Sharma, S. B. & Poinern, G. E. J. (2017) A review of current research into the biogenic synthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles via marine algae and seagrasses. Journal of Nanoscience, 1-15.

Fopp-Bayat, D. (2010) Meiotic gynogenesis revealed not homogametic female sex determination system in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri Brandt). Aquaculture, 305(1), 174-177.

Fossmark, R. O., Vadstein, O., Rosten, T. W., Bakke, I. et al. (2020). Effects of reduced organic matter loading through membrane filtration on the microbial community dynamics in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar). Aquaculture, 524, 735268.

Fraslin, C., Koskinen, H., Nousianen, A., Houston, R.D. & Kause, A. (2022) Genome-wide association and genomic prediction of resistance to Flavobacterium columnare in a farmed rainbow trout population. Aquaculture, 557, Article No. 738332.

Galparsoro, I., Murillas, A., Pinarbasi, K., Sequeira, A.M.M., Stelzenmüller, V. et al. (2020). Global stakeholder vision for ecosystem-based marine aquaculture expansion from coastal to offshore areas. Reviews in Aquaculture, 12, 2061-2079.

Genc, E., Genc, M.A., Kaya, D., Secer, F.S., Qaranjiki, A. & Guroy, D. (2020) Effect of prebiotics on the growth performance, haematological, biochemical, and histological parameters of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in recirculating aquaculture system. Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, 44, 1222-1231.

Gentry, K., Bui, S., Oppedal, F. & Dempster, T. (2020) Sea lice prevention strategies affect cleaner fish delousing efficacy in commercial Atlantic salmon sea cages. Aquaculture Environment Interaction, 12, 67-80.

Gjedrem, T. & Baranski, M. (2010) Selective Breeding in Aquaculture: An Introduction. Springer Science & Business Media.

Gjedrem, T., Robinson, N. & Rye, M. (2012) The importance of selective breeding in aquaculture to meet future demands for animal protein: A review. Aquaculture, 350-353, 117-129.

Gonzalez, E.B. & de Boer, F. (2021) The development of the Norwegian wrasse fishery and the use of wrasses as cleaner fish in the salmon aquaculture industry. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 87, 321-322.

Gudding, R., Lillehaug, A. & Evensen, Ø, (1999) Recent developments in fish vaccinology. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 72(1-2), 203-212.

Gutsell, J. (1946) Sulfa drugs and the treatment of furunculosis in trout. Science, 104, 85-86.

Handy, R. D. (2012) FSBI briefing paper: nanotechnology in fisheries and aquaculture. Journal of the Fisheries Society of the British Isles,1, 29.

Hanke, I., Hassenrück, C., Ampe, B., Kunzmann, A., Gärdes, A. & Aerts, J. (2020) Chronic stress under commercial aquaculture conditions: Scale cortisol to identify and quantify potential stressors in milkfish (Chanos chanos) mariculture. Aquaculture, 526, 735352.

Haridas, D.V., Joshy, C.G. & Pillai, D. (2022) Optimization of the multispecies probiotic combination with N-acyl homoserine lactone-degrading ability for increased disease resistance of Carassius auratus using response surface methodology. Aquaculture, 548, Article No. 737597.

Harland, J. (2019) The origins of aquaculture. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 3, 1378-1379. doi: org/10.1038/s41559-019-0966-3

Harrell, R. M. (2017) Bioethical considerations of advancing the application of marine biotechnology and aquaculture. Marine Drugs, 15(7), 197.

Hasan, M.T., Jang, W.J., Lee, S., Kim, K.W., Lee, B.J. et al. (2018) Effect of ß-glucooligosaccharides as a new prebiotic for dietary supplementation in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture. Aquaculture Research, 49, 1310-1319.

Hayatgheib, N., Moreau, E., Calvez, S., Lepelletier, D. & Pouliquen, H. (2020) A review of functional feeds and the control of Aeromonas infections in freshwater fish. Aquaculture International, 28 (3),1083-1123.

Hinchliffe, S., Butcher, A., Rahman, M.M., Guilder, J., Tyler, C. et al. (2021) Production without medicalisation: Risk practices and disease in Bangladesh aquaculture. Geographical Journal, 187, 39-50.

Horvath, S. (2013) DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types. Genome Biology, 14, (10). R115.

Horvath, S., Erhart, W., Brosch, M., Ammerpohl, O., von Schönfels, W. et al. (2014) Obesity accelerates epigenetic aging of human liver. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 111 (43), 15538- 15543.

Horvath, S., Zhang, Y., Langfelder, P., Kahn, R.S., Boks, M.P.M. et al. (2012) Aging effects on DNA methylation modules in human brain and blood tissue. Genome Biology, 13 (10), R97.

Huang, S., Wang, L., Liu, L., Hou, Y. & Li, L. (2015) Nanotechnology in agriculture, livestock, and aquaculture in China. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 35, 369– 400.

Jacob, J. M., Ravindran, R., Narayanan, M., Samuel, S. M., Pugazhendhi, A. & Kumar, G. (2021) Microalgae: A prospective low cost green alternative for nanoparticle synthesis. Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health, 20, 100163.

James, G., Geetha, P.P., Puthiyedathu, S.T. & Jayadradhan, R.K.V. (2023) Applications of Actinobacteria in aquaculture: prospects and challenges. 3 Biotech, 13, Article No. 42.

Jeyavani, J., Sibiya, A. Sivakamavalli, J., Divya, M., Peetham, E. et al. (2022) Phytotherapy and combined nanoformulations as a promising disease management in aquaculture: A review. Aquaculture International, 30, 1071-1086.

Jiang, Q., Bhattarai, N., Pahlow, M. & Xu, Z. (2022) Environmental sustainability and footprints of global aquaculture. Resources Conservation & Recycling, 2, 180, 106183.

Karami, A.M., Duan, Y., Kania, P.W. & Buchmann, K. (2022) Responses towards eyefluke (Diplostomum pseudospathaceum) in different genetic lineages of rainbow trout. Plos One, 17, Article No. e0276895.

Kasai H., Yoshimizu M. & Ezura Y (2002) Disinfection of water for Aquaculture. Fisheries Science, 68 Supplement, 821-824. October 1-5, 2001. Yokihama, Japan 821

Khan, T.A. (2003) Dietary studies on exotic carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from two lakes of western Victoria, Australia. Aquatic Science—Research Across Boundaries, 65, 272–286.

Khanjani, M. H., Mohammadi, A. & Emerenciano, M. G. C. (2022a) Microorganisms in biofloc aquaculture system. Aquaculture Reports, 26, 101300.

Khanjani, M.H., Sharifinia, M. & Ghaedi, G. (2022b) beta-glucan as a promising food additive and immunostimulant in aquaculture industry. Annals of Animal Science, 22, 817-827.

Kim, K., Zheng, Y., Joyce, B.T., Jiang, H., Greenland, P. et al. (2022) Relative contributions of six lifestyle- and health- related exposures to epigenetic aging: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Clinical Epigenetics, 14 (1), 85.

Kiron, V. (2012) Fish immune system and its nutritional modulation for preventive health care. Animal Feed Science Technology, 173 (1-2), 111-133.

Kitis, M. (2004) Disinfection of wastewater with peracetic acid: A review. Environment International, 30, 47–55.

Kitiyodom, S., Yata, T., Yostawornkul, J. et al. (2019) Enhanced efficacy of immersion vaccination in tilapia against columnaris disease by chitosan-coated “pathogen-like” muco adhesive nanovaccines. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 95, 213–219.

Komen, H. & Thorgaard, G. H. (2007) Androgenesis, gynogenesis and the production of clones in fishes: a review. Aquaculture, 269(1-4), 150-173.

Kunttu, H.M.T., Runtuvuori-Salmela, A., Middelboe, M., Clark, J. & Sundberg, L.R. (2021) Comparison of delivery methods in phage therapy against Flavobacterium columnare infections in rainbow trout. Antibiotics-Basel, 10. Article No. 914.

Lakshmi, S., Smith, D., Dong, H.T., Thompson, K.D. & Elumalai, P. (2023) Tilapia lake virus disease: Vaccine strategies to control the threat to tilapia aquaculture. Reviews in Aquaculture, 1590-1599.

Lee, C.-S., Leung, P.-S. & Su, M.-S. (1997) Bioeconomic evaluation of different fry production systems for milkfish (Chanos chanos). Aquaculture, 155, 367–376

Levine, M.E., Lu, A.T., Bennett, D.A. & Horvath, S. (2015) Epigenetic age of the pre-frontal cortex is associated with neuritic plaques, amyloid load, and Alzheimer's disease related cognitive functioning. Aging (Albany NY), 7 (12) 1198-1211.

Li, L., Lin, S.L., Deng, L. & Liu, Z.G. (2013) Potential use of chitosan nanoparticles for oral delivery of DNA vaccine in black seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii Bleeker to protect from Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Journal of Fish Diseases, 36, 987–995.

Li, M.Y., Xi, B.W., Qin, T., Chen, K., Ren, M.C. & Xie, J. (2019) Indigenous AHL-degrading bacterium Bacillus firmus sw40 affects virulence of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila and disease resistance of gibel carp. Aquaculture Research, 50, 2755-3762.

Liao, I.C., Huang, T.-S., Tsai, W.-S., Hsueh, C.-M., Chang, S.-L. & Leaño, E.M. (2004) Cobia culture in Taiwan: Current status and problems. Aquaculture, 237, 155–165.

Liu, D., Straus, D.L., Pedersen, L.-F. & Meinelt, T. (2017a) Pulse versus continuous peracetic acid applications: effects on rainbow trout performance, biofilm formation and water quality. Aquacultural Engineering, 77, 72–79.

Liu, D., Pedersen, L.-F., Straus, D.L., Kloas, W. & Meinelt, T. (2017b) Alternative prophylaxis/disinfection in aquaculture-adaptable stress induced by peracetic acid at low concentration and its application strategy in RAS. Aquaculture, 474, 82–85.

Liu, R.Y., Han, G.H., Li, Z., Cun, S.J., Hao, B. et al. (2022) Bacteriophage therapy in aquaculture: current status and future challenges. Folia Microbiologica, 67, 573-590.

Liu, Z., Wang, Y., Ren, J., Mei, M., Frei, U. K., Trampe, B. & Lübberstedt, T. (2016) Maize doubled haploids. Plant Breeding Reviews, 40, 123-166.

Loboiko, Y. V., Barylo, Y. O., Vachko, Y. R., Barylo, B. S. & Rachkivska, I. R. (2021) Technologies of carp growing and their features. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Agricultural sciences, 23(95), 54-59.

Lowe, R., Barton, C., Jenkins, C.A., Ernst, C., Forman, O. et al. (2018) Ageing-associated DNA methylation dynamics are a molecular readout of lifespan variation among mammalian species. Genome Biology, 19 (1), 22.

Luis, A. I. S., Campos, E. V. R., de Oliveira, J. L. & Fraceto, L. F. (2019) Trends in aquaculture sciences: from now to use of nanotechnology for disease control. Reviews in Aquaculture, 11(1), 119-132.

Luo, M., Wang, J., Dong, Z., Wang, C. & Lu, G. (2022) CRISPR-Cas9 sgRNA design and outcome assessment: Bioinformatics tools and aquaculture applications. Aquaculture and Fisheries, 7(2), 121-130.

Marandel, L., Heraud, C., Véron, V., Laithier, J., Marchand, M. et al. (2022) A plant-based diet differentially affects the global hepatic methylome in rainbow trout depending on genetic background. Epigenetics, 17 (12), 1726-1737.

Marioni, R.E., Shah, S., McRae, A.F., Ritchie, S.J., Muniz-Terrera, G. et al. (2015) The epigenetic clock is correlated with physical and cognitive fitness in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. International Journal of Epidemiology, 44 (4), 1388-1396.

Martin, S.J., Mather, C., Knott, C. & Bavington, D. (2021) ‘Landing’ salmon aquaculture: Ecologies, infrastructures and the promise of sustainability. Geoforum, 123, 47–55.

Martínez, P., Viñas, A. M., Sánchez, L., Díaz, N., Ribas, L. & Piferrer, F. (2014) Genetic architecture of sex determination in fish: applications to sex ratio control in aquaculture. Frontiers in genetics, 5, 340.

Mayne, B., Espinoza, T., Roberts, D., Butler, G.L., Brooks, S. et al. (2021) Nonlethal age estimation of three threatened fish species using DNA methylation: Australian lungfish, Murray cod and Mary River cod. Molecular Ecology Resources, 21 (7), 2324-2332.

Mayne, B., Korbie, D., Kenchington, L., Ezzy, B., Berry, O. & Jarman, S. (2020) A DNA methylation age predictor for zebrafish. Aging, 12 (24), 24817-24835.

Mazlum, Y., Yazici, M. & Gurlek, O.G. (2020) Evaluation of stocking densities and feed types on growth and survival of narrow-clawed crayfish Pontastacus leptodactylus (Escholtz, 1823) reared under laboratory conditions. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 29 (9A0, 8283-8293.

McMaster, M.F. & Gopakumar, G. (2016) Trachinotus blochii. In Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme; FAO: Rome, Italy.

Megahed, M.E. (2020) Genetic selection for improved disease resistance in aquaculture with special reference to shrimp and tilapia breeding programs in Egypt. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 32(4), 291-340.

Mohan, K., Ravichandran, S., Mualisankar, T., Uthayakumar, V., Chandrirasekar, R. et al. (2019) Potential uses of fungal polysaccharides as immunostimulants in fish and shrimp aquaculture: A review. Aquaculture, 500, 250-263. 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.10.023

Mongillo, F.J. (2007) Nanotechnology 101, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut/London.

Moraleda, C.P., Robledo, D., Guttierrez, A.P., del-Pozo, J., Yanez, J.M & Houston, R.D. (2021) Investigating mechanisms underlying genetic resistance to Salmon Rickettsial Syndrome in Atlantic salmon using RNA sequencing. BMC Genomics, 22. Article No. 156.

Mota, V.C., Martins, C.I., Eding, E.H., Can´ario, A.V. & Verreth, J.A. (2014) Steroids accumulate in the rearing water of commercial recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquaculture Engineering, 62, 9–16.

Mukherjee, A., Sarkar, D. & Sasmal, S. (2021) A review of green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using algae. Frontiers in Microbiology, 12, 693899.

Nababan, Y.I., Yuhana, M., Penataseputro, T., Nasrullah, H., Alimuddin, A. & Widanarni, W. (2022) Dietary supplementation of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida 1UB and fructooligosaccharide enhance growth performance and protect the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) against WSSV and Vibrio harveyi coinfection. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 131, 746-756.

Nasr-Eldahan, S., Nabil-Adam, A., Shreadah, M.A., Maher, A.M. & Ali, T.E.A. (2021) A review article on nanotechnology in aquaculture sustainability as a novel tool in fish disease control. Aquaculture International, 29 (4), 1459-1480. doi: 10.1007/s10499-021-00677-7

Nayak, A., Karunasagar, I., Chakraborty, A. & Maiti, B. (2022) Potential application of bacteriocins for sustainable aquaculture. Reviews in Aquaculture, 14, 1234-1249.

Nevalainen, T., Kananen, L., Marttila, S., Jylhävä, J., Mononen, N. et al. (2017) Obesity accelerates epigenetic aging in middle-aged but not in elderly individuals. Clinical Epigenetics, 9 (1), 20.

Ninawe, A.S., Sivasankari, S., Ramasamy, P., Kiran, G.S. & Selvin, J. (2020) Bacteriophages for aquaculture disease control. Aquaculture International, 28, 1925-1938.

Normark, B. B. (2009) 13 - Unusual gametic and genetic systems. In Sperm Biology, 507-538 (Eds T. R. Birkhead, D. J. Hosken and S. Pitnick). London: Academic Press.

Notomi, T., Okayama, H., Masubuchi, H., Yonekawa, T., Watanabe, K. et al. (2000) Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA. Nucleic Acids Research, 28, e63.

NRC (2011) Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC. https:/doi:10.17226/13039

Nya, E.J. & Austin, B. (2009) Use of garlic, Allium sativum, to control Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Diseases, 32, 963-970.

O'Neill, J. (2015) Antimicrobials in agriculture and the environment: reducing unnecessary use and waste, The Review on Antimicrobial Resistance, (Accessed 24/5/23)

Ozcelik, H., Tastan, Y., Terzi, E. & Sonmez, A.Y. (2020) Use of onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) wastes for the prevention of fungal disease (Saprolegnia parasitica) on eggs of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Journal of Fish Diseases, 43, 1325-1330.

Panserat, S. & Kaushik, S.J. (2010) Regulation of gene expression by nutritional factors in fish. Aquaculture Research, 41 (5), 751-762.

Paschos, I., Natsis, L., Nathanailides, C., Kagalou, I. & Kolettas, E. (2001) Induction of gynogenesis and androgenesis in goldfish Carassius auratus (var. oranda). Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 36(3‐4), 195-198.

Patolsky, F., Zheng, G., Hayden, O., Lakadamyali, M., Zhuang, X. & Lieber, C. M. (2004) Electrical detection of single viruses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101(39), 14017-14022.

Pedersen, L. F., Meinelt, T. & Straus, D. L. (2013) Peracetic acid degradation in freshwater aquaculture systems and possible practical implications. Aquacultural Engineering, 53, 65–71.

Pedersen, L.-F., Pedersen, P.B., Nielsen, J.L. & Nielsen, P.H. (2009) Peracetic acid degradation and effects on nitrification in recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquaculture. 296, 246–254.

Peeler, E.J. & Ernst, I. (2019) A new approach to the management of emerging diseases of aquatic animals. Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics), 38, 537-551.

Pereira, W.A., Mendonca, C.M.N., Urquiza, A.V., Marteinsson V.P., LeBlanc, J.G. et al. (2022) Use of probiotic bacteria and bacteriocins as an alternative to antibiotics in aquaculture. Microorganisms, 10. Article No. 1705.

Philippine Council for Agriculture, A. and N.R.R. and D. of the D. of S. and T. (2016) The Philippines Recommends for Milkfish; DOSTPCAARRD: Laguna, Philippines.

Piferrer, F., Beaumont, A., Falguière, J.-C., Flajšhans, M., Haffray, P. & Colombo, L. (2009) Polyploid fish and shellfish: production, biology and applications to aquaculture for performance improvement and genetic containment. Aquaculture, 293(3-4), 125-156.

Piferrer, F, Anastasiadi, D. (2023) Age estimation in fishes using epigenetic clocks: Applications to fisheries management and conservation biology. Frontiers in Marine Science, 10, 1062151.

Piferrer F, Wang H (eds) (2023) Epigenetics in Aquaculture. Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Polanowski, A.M., Robbins, J., Chandler, D. & Jarman, S.N. (2014) Epigenetic estimation of age in humpback whales. Molecular Ecology Resources, 14 (5), 976-987.

Ponnuchamy, K. & Jacob, J. A. (2016) Metal nanoparticles from marine seaweeds–a review. Nanotechnology Reviews, 5(6), 589-600.

Powell, A., Chingombe, P., Lupatsch, I., Shields, R. J. & Lloyd, R. (2015) The effect of ozone on water quality and survival of turbot (Psetta maxima) maintained in a recirculating aquaculture system. Aquacultural Engineering, 64, 20–24.

Prigge, V. & Melchinger, A. E. (2012) Production of haploids and doubled haploids in maize. Plant Cell Culture Protocols, 161-172.

Puri, P., Sharma, J.G. & Singh, R. (2023) Biotherapeutic microbial supplementation for ameliorating fish health: developing trends in probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics use in finfish aquaculture. Animal Health Research Reviews. Article No. PII S1466252321000165. 113-135.

Quach, A., Levine, M.E., Tanaka, T., Lu. A.T., Chen, B.H. et al. (2017) Epigenetic clock analysis of diet, exercise, education, and lifestyle factors. Aging, 9 (2) 419-446.

Rahimi, R., Mirahmadi, S.A., Hajirezaee, S. & Fallah, A.A. (2022) How probiotics impact on immunological parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Reviews in Aquaculture, 14 (1), 27-53.

Rajan, D.K., Divya, D. & Mohan, K. (2023) Potential role of plant polysaccharides as immunostimulants in aquaculture: a review. Annals of Animal Science. 951-969. https://doi: 10.2478/aoas-2022-0096

Rajasulochana, P. & Gummadi, S.N. (2022) A probiotic based product using multi-strain Bacillus species and predictive models for shrimp growth following probiotic intervention. Aquaculture, 551. Article No. 737869

Rajeshkumar, S., Venkatesan, C., Sarathi, M., Sarathbabu, V., Thomas, J. et al. (2009) Oral delivery of DNA construct using chitosan nanoparticles to protect the shrimp from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 26, 429–437.

Ramirez, M., Dominguez-Borbor, C., Salazar, L., Debut, A., Vizuete, K. et al. (2022) The probiotics Vibrio diabolicus (Ili), Vibrio hepatarius (P62), and Bacillus cereus sensu stricto (P64) colonize internal and external surfaces of Penaeus vannamei shrimp larvae and protect it against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aquaculture, 549. Article No. 737826.

Reyes, M., Ramirez, C., Nancucheo, I., Villegas, R.., Schaffeld, G. et al. (2017) A novel "in-feed" delivery platform applied for oral DNA vaccination against IPNV enables high protection in Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar). Vaccine, 35, 626-632.

Rimmer, M.A. (1995) Barramundi Farming—An Introduction; Queensland Department of Primary Industries Information Series: Queensland, Australia.

Ringø, E., Li, X.M., van Doan, H. & Ghosh, K. (2022) Interesting probiotic bacteria other than the more widely used lactic acid bacteria and bacilli in finfish. Frontiers in Marine Science, 9. Article No. 848037.

Rodgers, C., Arzul, I., Carrasco, N. & Furones Nozal, D. (2019) A literature review as an aid to identify strategies for mitigating ostreid herpesvirus in Crassostrea gigas hatchery and nursery systems. Reviews in Aquaculture, 11, 565-585.

Romano, N. (2017) Aquamimicry: A revolutionary concept for shrimp farming. Health & Welfare. Responsible Seafood Advocate.

Rothschild, M. F. & Ruvinsky, A. (2007) Marker‐assisted selection for aquaculture species. Aquaculture Genome Technologies, 199-214.

Ryu, T., Veilleux, H.D., Munday, P.L., Jung, I., Donelson, J.M. & Ravasi, T. (2020) An epigenetic signature for within- generational plasticity of a reef fish to ocean warming. Frontiers in Marine Science 7.

Saito, T., Whatmore, P., Taylor, J.F., Fernandes, J.M.O., Adam, A. C. et al. (2021) Micronutrient supplementation affects transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of lipid metabolism in a dose-dependent manner. Epigenetics, 16 (11), 1217-1234.

Salem, D. M., Ismail, M. M. & Tadros, H. R. (2020) Evaluation of the antibiofilm activity of three seaweed species and their biosynthesized iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs). The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 46(4), 333-339.

Salem, S. S. (2023) A mini review on green nanotechnology and its development in biological effects. Archives of Microbiology, 205(4), 128.

Santos, R.A., Oliva-Teles, A., Pousao-Ferreira, P., Jerusik, R., Saavedra, M.J. et al. (2021) Isolation and characterization of fish-gut Bacillus spp. as source of natural antimicrobial compounds to fight aquaculture bacterial diseases. Marine Biotechnology, 23, 276-293.

Schumann, M., & Brinker, A. (2020). Understanding and managing suspended solids in intensive salmonid aquaculture: a review. Reviews in Aquaculture, 12(4), 2109-2139.

Sciuto, S., Colli, L., Fabris, A., Pastorino, P., Stoppani, N. et al. (2022) What can genetics do for the control of infectious diseases in aquaculture? Animals, 12. Article No. 2176.

Seginer, I. (2016). Growth models of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) for aquaculture: A review. Aquacultural Engineering, 70, 15-32.

Sekhon, B. S. (2014) Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview. Nanotechnology, Science and Applications, 31-53.

Shaheer, P., Sreejith, V.N., Joseph, T.C., Murugadas, V. & Lalitha, K.V. (2021) Quorum quenching Bacillus spp.: an alternative biocontrol agent for Vibrio harveyi infection in aquaculture. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 146, 117-128.

Sharrer, M.J. & Summerfelt, S.T. (2007) Ozonation followed by ultraviolet irradiation provides effective bacteria inactivation in a freshwater recirculating system. Aquacultural Engineering, 37, 180–191.

Sheikh, H., John, A., Musa, N., Abdulrazzak, L.A., Alfataqma, M. & Fadhlina, A. (2022) Vibrio spp. and their vibriocin as a vibriosis control measure in aquaculture. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 194, 4477-4491.

Simpson, D.J. & Chandra, T. (2021) Epigenetic age prediction. Aging Cell, 20 (9). e13452.

Singh, J., Dutta, T., Kim, K. H., Rawat, M., Samddar, P. & Kumar, P. (2018) Green’synthesis of metals and their oxide nanoparticles: applications for environmental remediation. Journal of Nanobiotechnology, 16(1), 1-24.

Skjærven, K.H., Adam, A.-C., Saito, T., Waagbø, R. & Espe, M. (2022) Nutritional epigenetics. In: Fernández Monzón I, Fernandes JMO (eds) Cellular and Molecular Approaches in Fish Biology. Academic Press, pp 161-192.

Snieszko, S. F., Friddle, S. B., & Griffin, P. J. (1951) Successful treatment of ulcer disease in brook trout with terramycin. Science, 112, 717-718.

Soltani, M., Baldisserotto, B., Shekarabi, S.P.H., Shafiei, S. & Bashiri, M. (2021) Lactococcosis a re-emerging disease in aquaculture: Disease significant and phytotherapy. Veterinary Sciences, 8. Article No. 181.

Sonesson, A. K., Guimarães, E., Ruane, J., Scherf, B., Sonnino, A. & Dargie, J. (2007) Possibilities for marker-assisted selection in aquaculture breeding schemes. Marker-Assisted Selection: Current Status and Future Application in Crops, Livestock, Forestry and Fish, 309-328.

Sorphea, S., Terai, A., Sreyrum, P., Lundh, T., Barnes, A.C., Da, C.T. & Kiessling, A. (2019) Growth performance of fry and fingerling Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer) from Cambodian brood stock reared at different salinities. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 31, 1–8.

Souza, C.F., Baldissera, M.D., Santos, R.C.V., Raffin, R.P. & Baldisserotto, B. (2017) Nanotechnology improves the therapeutic efficacy of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil in experimentally infected Rhamdia quelen with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Aquaculture, 473, 169-171.

Steinberg, C.E.W. (2018) Aquatic Animal Nutrition–A Mechanistic Perspective from Individuals to Generations. Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Cham, Switzerland.

Steinberg, C.E.W. (2022) Aquatic Animal Nutrition – Organic Macro- and Micro-Nutrients. Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Cham, Switzerland.

Stickney, R.R. (2005) Aquaculture: An Introductory Text. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxford, UK. ISBN 0 85199 604 3

Strath, L.J., Meng, L., Rani, A., Sinha, P., Johnson. A.J. et al. (2022) Accelerated epigenetic aging mediates the association between vitamin D levels and knee pain in community-dwelling individuals. Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, 26 (4), 318-323.

Stromme, M., Brohede, U., Atluri, R. & Garcia‐Bennett, A. E. (2009) Mesoporous silica‐based nanomaterials for drug delivery: evaluation of structural properties associated with release rate. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, 1(1), 140-148.

Sun, J.L., Liu, Y.F., Jiang, T., Li, Y.Q., Song, F.B. et al. (2021) Golden pompano (Trachinotus blochii) adapts to acute hypoxic stress by altering the preferred mode of energy metabolism. Aquaculture, 542, 736842

Sun, Y., Hou, H., Dong, D., Zhang, J., Yang, X. et al. (2023). Comparative life cycle assessment of whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) cultured in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), biofloc technology (BFT) and higher-place ponds (HPP) farming systems in China. Aquaculture, 739625.

Tanabe, A., Shimizu, R., Osawa, Y., Suzuki, M., Ito, S. et al. (2020) Age es timation by DNA methylation in the Antarctic minke whale. Fisheries Science, 86 (1), 35-41.

Tang, K.F.J. & Bondad-Reantaso, M.G. (2019) Impacts of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease on commercial shrimp aquaculture. Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics), 38, 477-489.

Tebbit, G.L. & Goodrich, T.D. (1982) Vibriosis and the development of bacterins for its control, In Les antigenes des micro-organisms pathogenes des poissons, eds. D.P. Anderson, M. Morson, P. Dubourget (Collection Fondation Marcel Merieux, 1982), pp. 225-248.

Tesdorpf, J.E., Geers, A.U., Strube, M.L., Gram, L & Bentzon-Tilia, M. (2022) Roseobacter group probiotics exhibit differential killing of fish pathogenic Tenacibaculum species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, b88. Article No. e02418-21.

Thorarinsson, R. & Powell, D.B. (2006) Effects of disease risk, vaccine efficacy, and market price on the economics of fish vaccination. Aquaculture, 256 (1–4), 42-49.

Timmons, M.B., & Ebeling, J.M. (2010) Recirculating aquaculture. Cayuga Aqua Ventures.

Tran, N., Rodriuez, U.-P., Chan, C.Y., Phillips, M.J., Mohan, C.V. et al. (2017) Indonesian aquaculture futures: An analysis of fish supply and demand in Indonesia to 2030 and role of aquaculture using the AsiaFish model. Marine Policy, 79, 25–32.

Tsai, H.-J., Tseng, F. & Liao, I.-C. (1995) Electroporation of sperm to introduce foreign DNA into the genome of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 52(4), 776-787.

Tveterås, R., Jory, D.E. & Nystoyl, R. (2019) Goal 2019 Global Finfish Production Review and Forecast; Global Seafood Alliance: Portsmouth, NH, USA.

Vadassery, D.H. & Pillai, D. (2020) Quorum quenching potential of Enterococcus faecium QQ12 isolated from gastrointestinal tract of Oreochromis niloticus and its application as a probiotic for the control of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus 1758). Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 51, 1333-1343.

Vadstein, O., Attramadal, K.J., Bakke, I. & Olsen, Y. (2018) K-selection as microbial community management strategy: A method for improved viability of larvae in aquaculture. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9, 2730.

Vandeputte, M., Gagnaire, P. A. & Allal, F. (2019) The European sea bass: a key marine fish model in the wild and in aquaculture. Animal Genetics, 50(3), 195-206.

Vijayaram, S., Sun, Y.Z., Zuorro, A., Ghafarifarsani, H., Doan, H.V. & Hoseinifar, S.H. (2022) Bioactive immunostimulants as health-promoting feed additives in aquaculture: A review. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 130, 294-308.

Vinatea, L., Galvez, A.O., Browdy, C.L., Stokes, A., Venero, J. et al. (2010) Photosynthesis, water respiration and growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei in a super-intensive raceway culture with zero water exchange: interaction of water quality variables. Aquacultural Engineering, 42, 17–24.

Wakchaure, R., Ganguly, S., Praveen, P., Kumar, A., Sharma, S. & Mahajan, T. (2015) Marker assisted selection (MAS) in animal breeding: a review. Journal of Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, 6(5), e127.

Wan, W., Qin, Y., Shi, G., Li, S., Liao, Q. et al. (2023). Genetic improvement of aquaculture performance for tetraploid Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas: A case study of four consecutive generations of selective breeding. Aquaculture, 563, 738910.

Wang, H. P. & Shen, Z. G. (2018) Sex control in aquaculture: concept to practice. Sex Control in Aquaculture, 1-34.

Wang, J.S., Zhang, S.W., Ouyang, Y.J. & Li, R. (2019) Current developments of bacteriocins, screening methods and their application in aquaculture and aquatic products. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 22. Article No. 101395.

Watson, L., Falconer, L., Dale, T. & Telfer, T.C. (2022) Offshore' salmon aquaculture and identifying the needs for environmental regulation. Aquaculture, 546. Article No. 737342.

Weber, D.N., Fields, A.T., Patterson, W.F. III, Barnett, B.K., Hollenbeck. C.M. & Portnoy, D.S. (2022) Novel epigenetic age estimation in wild-caught Gulf of Mexico reef fishes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 79 (1),1-5.

Werschkun, B., Banerji, S., Basurko, O.C., David, M., Fuhr, F., Gollasch, S. & Kehrer, A. (2014) Emerging risks from ballast water treatment: the run-up to the International Ballast Water Management Convention. Chemosphere, 112, 256−266.

Wu, X.X., Teame, T., Hao, Q., Ding, Q.W., Liu, H.L. et al. (2020) Use of a paraprobiotic and postbiotic feed supplement (HWF (TM)) improves the growth performance, composition and function of gut microbiota in hybrid sturgeon (Acipenser baerii x Acipenser schrenckii). Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 104, 36-45.

Yano, T., Mangindaan, R.E.P. & Matsuyama, H. (1989) Enhancement of the resistance of carp Cyprinus carpio to experimental Edwardsiella tarda infection, by some ß-1,3-gluans. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 55, 1815-1819.

Yigit, Ü., Yigit, M., Ergün, S., Kusku, H., Ek, H. & Maita, M. (2023) Analysis of the economic performance of salmon farming in submerged and surface cages in the Black Sea. Aquaculture International,

Yoshimizu, M. (2003) Control strategy for viral diseases of salmonids and flounder. P. 35-50 in C.-S. Lee and P.J. O’Bryen, editors. Biosecurity in Aquaculture Production Systems: Exclusion of Pathogens and Other Undesirables. The World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.

Yousefi, M., Hoseini, S.M., Vatnikov, Y.A., Kulikov, E.V. & Drukovsky, S.G. (2019) Rosemary leaf powder improved growth performance, immune and antioxidant parameters, and crowding stress responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Aquaculture, 505, 473-480.

Yue, K. & Shen, Y. (2022) An overview of disruptive technologies for aquaculture. Aquaculture and Fisheries, 7, 111-120.

Zhang, W.W., Li, C.H. & Guo, M. (2021) Use of ecofriendly alternatives for the control of bacterial infection in aquaculture of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Aquaculture, 545. Article o. 737185.

Zhang, Z.X., Wang, Z.Y., Fang, M., Ye, K., Tang, X. & Zhang, D.L. (2022) Genome-wide association analysis on host resistance against the rotten body disease in a naturally infected population of large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea. Aquaculture, 548, Article No. 737615.

Zhou, L. & Gui, J. (2017) Natural and artificial polyploids in aquaculture. Aquaculture and Fisheries, 2(3), 103-111.

Zhou, R., Lu, G., Yan Z., Jiang, R., Su, Y. & Zhang, P. (2022) Epigenetic mechanisms of DNA methylation in the transgenerational effect of ethylhexyl salicylate on zebrafish. Chemosphere, 295. 133926.

Zhu, F. (2020) A review on the application of herbal medicines in the disease control of aquatic animals. Aquaculture, 526. Article No. 735422.




How to Cite

Can, E., Austin, B., Steinberg, C. E. ., Carboni, C. ., Sağlam, N., Thompson, K. ., Yiğit, M. ., Seyhaneyildiz Can, S. ., & Ergün, S. (2023). Best practices for fish biosecurity, well-being and sustainable aquaculture. Sustainable Aquatic Research, 2(3), 221–267.



Review Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)