Comparision of cooking processes on nutritional value of fresh and cooked-blast chilled crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823)




Sous vide, boiling, microwave, crayfish, nutritional value, proximate composition


In this study, the effects of three different cooking methods (boiling, sous-vide cooking, microwave cooking) were evaluated on the nutritional content value of blast chilled crayfish. Proximate, fatty acid and amino acid composition, vitamin and mineral contents of crayfish were investigated before and after the cooking processes.

It was determined that the cooking methods with the least loss of vitamins and minerals were sous vide and microwave cooking. On the other hand, it was determined that there was no loss in EPA fatty acid in the boiling (BC) group samples, but there was a significant loss in the sous vide cooking (SVC) and microwave cooking (MC) group samples. In addition, the loss in DHA fatty acid in all groups cooked in DHA fatty acid was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). While sous vide cooked crayfish had the highest protein content, microwave cooking was determined as the most appropriate cooking method in terms of EAA (Essential Amino Acids) ratio.

Consequently, it had been suggested that the sous vide and microwave cooking methods were the best methods preserving the nutritional value compared to the boiling method.


Alexander, J., Frøyland, L., Hemre, G-I., Jacobsen, B. K., Meltzer, H. M. & Skåre, J.U. (2006). A comprehensive assessment of fish and other seafood in the Norwegian diet. Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM), p.1-173.

AOAC (1990). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, (15th edition), In. Helrich K. (ed.), Section 969.33. Airlington Virginia. Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

AOAC (1998a). Ash of seafood. In Fish and Other Marine Products, J.M. Hungerford (Chapter ed.). In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (P. Cunniff, ed.) Official Method 938.08. Chapter 35, 6. AOAC International. Gaithersburg, MD.

AOAC (1998b). Nitrogen (total) in seafood. In Fish and Other Marine Products (J.M. Hungerford, Chapter ed.) In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (P. Cunniff ed.) Official Method 955.04. Chapter 35, 6. AOAC International. Gaithersburg, MD.

AOAC (2002). Association of official analytical methods. Official methods of analysis, 16th edition. Arlington, Virginia.

Aziz, N.A., Azlan, A., Ismail, A., Alinafiah, S.M. & Razman, M.R. (2013). Quantitative determination of fatty acids in marine fish and shellfish from warm water of straits of Malacca for nutraceutical purposes. BioMed Research International, ID 284329.

Bhat, Z.F., Morton, J.D., Bekhit, AE.-DA., Kumar, S. & Bhat, H.F. (2021). Thermal processing implications on the digestibility of meat, fish and seafood proteins. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 4511–4548.

Bligh, E.G. & Dyer, W.J. (1959). A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology, 37, 911–917.

Bongiorno, T., Tulli, F., Comi, G., Sensidoni, A., Andyanto, D. (2018). Sous-vide cook-chill mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis): evaluation of chemical, microbiological and sensory quality during chilled storage 3°C. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 91, 117-124.

Bordoloi, R. & Ganguly, S. (2014). Microwave cooking technology and its implications in food processing: a review. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 2(4), 1.

Candela, M., Astiasaran, I. & Bello, J. (1997). Effects of frying and warmholding on fatty acids

And cholesterol of sole (Solea solea), codfish (Gadus morrhua) and hake (Merluccius merluccius). Food Chemistry,58(3), 227-231.

Candela, C.G., Bermejo López, L.M. & Kohen, V.L. (2011). Importance of a balanced omega6/omega3 ratio for the maintenance of health. Nutritional recommendations. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 26 (2), 323-329.

Cengiz, E.I., Unlu, E. & Bashan, M. (2010). Fatty acid composition of total lipids in muscle tissues of nine freshwater fish from the River Tigris (Turkey). Turkish Journal of Biology, 34(4), 433-438.

Ceylan, Z., Meral, R., Cavidoglu, I., Karakas, C.Y. & Yilmaz, M.T. (2018). A new application on fatty acid stability of fish fillets: Coating with probiotic bacteria-loaded polymer-based characterized nanofibers. Journal of food safety, p.1-9.

Chandrasekara, A. & Shahidi, F. (2015). The use of antioxidants in ready-to-eat (RTE) and cook-chill food products. Handbook of antioxidants for food preservation. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, 433-446.

Chen, G. & Xiong, Y.L. (2008). Shelf-stability enhancements of precooked red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) tails by modified CO2/O2/N2 gas packaging. LWT-Food Science and Technology, (8)1431–1436.

Chhatbar, S.K. & Velankar, N.K. (1979). Distribution of vitamin B-12 in some fishes and marine invertebrates. Fishery Technology, 16(2), 109-111.

Colakoglu, F.A., Ormanci, H.B. & Cakir, F. (2011). Effect of marination and smoking on lipid and fatty acid composition of thornback ray (Raja clavata) and spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). European Food Research and Technology, 232, 1069–1075.

COMA (1994). Nutritional aspects of cardiovascular disease. Report of the Cardiovascular Review Group Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. Report on Health and Social Subjects (Lond), HMSO, 46, 1-186.

Copur, O.U. & Tamer, C.E. (2003). Modern Catering Sistemi: Cook-chill. Food 28(2), 159–167.

Creed, P.G. (1998). Sensory and nutritional aspects of sous vide processed foods. In Sous vide and Cook-Chill Processing for the Food Industry (ed. by Ghazala, S.), Canada, An Aspen Publishers, Inc, Gaithersburg, MD 0751404330, pp 57-82.

Cropotova, J., Mozuraityte, R., Standal, I.B. & Rustad, T. (2018). A non-invasive approach to assess texture changes in sous-vide cooked Atlantic mackerel during chilled storage by fluorescence imaging. Food Control, 92, 216-224.

Çevikkalp, S.A., Löker, G.B., Yaman, M. & Amoutzopoulos, B. (2016). A simplified HPLC method for determination of tryptophan in some cereals and legumes. Food Chemistry,193,26-29.

Demirtas, I., Pelvan, E., Ozdemir, I.S., Alasalvar, C., Ertas, E. (2013). Lipid characteristics and phenolics of native grape seed oils grown in Turkey. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 115, 641–647.

Dimova, N. (2003). RP-HPLC Analysis of Aminoacids with UV-Detection, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Tome 56, No 12.

Durmus, M. (2020). The effects of nanoemulsions based on citrus essential oils (orange, mandarin, grapefruit, and lemon) on the shelf life of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) fillets at 4±2ᵒC. Journal of Food Safety, 40(1), e12718.

Dutson, T.R. & Orcutt, M.W. (1984). Chemical Changes in Proteins Produced by Thermal Processing. Journal of Chemical Education, 61(4), 303-308.

El-Ansari, A. & Bekhit, AE-DA. (2014). Processing, Storage and Quality of Cook-Chill or Cook-Freeze Foods, Minimally Processed Foods: Technologies for Safety, Quality, and Convenience, Siddiquim, M.W. & Rahman, M.S. (ed.) Chapter 7, Springer: International Publishing Switzerland. 1-85573-730-2. 2014; 125-150.

El-Kholie, E.M., Khader, S.A. & Abdelreheem, M.A.T. (2012). Chemical, physical, microbiological and quality attributes studies on River Nile crayfish. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(51), 11262-11270.

El-Sherif, S.A.E-H, & El-Ghafour, S.A. (2015). Nutritive value of canned River Nile Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) products. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 41(3), 265-272.

Ersoy, B. & Ozeren, A. (2009). The effect of cooking methods on mineral and vitamin contents of African catfish. Food Chemistry, 115, 419–422.

Ersoy, B., Yanar, Y., Kucukgulmez, A. & Celik, M. (2006). Effects of four cooking methods on the heavy metal concentrations of sea bass fillets (Dicentrarchus labrax Linne,1758). Food Chemistry, 99(4), 748-751.

FAO (2010). Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition. Reports of an expert consultation. Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations, P.91, 1-161, Rome.

FAO (2019) FIGIS Fisheries Statistics Global Capture Production 1950–2019. Statistical Query Results. [Accessed Mar. 10, 2022].

FAO (1978). Recommended international standard for quick frozen lobsters. CAC/RS 95. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Health Organization, Rome, p.17.

Gall, K.L., Otwell, W.S., Koburger, J.A. & Appledorf, H. (1983). Effects of four cooking methods on the proximate, mineral and fatty acid composition of fish fillets. Journal of Food Science, (48) 1068-1074.

Garcia-Linares, M.C., Gonzalez-Fandos, E., Garcia-Fernandez, M.C., Garcia-Arias, M.T. (2004). Microbiological and nutritional quality of sous vide or traditionally processed fish: influence of fat content. Journal of Food Quality, 27(5), 371–387.

Gladyshev, M.I., Sushchik, N.N., Gubanenko, G.A., Demirchieva, S.M. & Kalachova, G.S. (2007). Effect of boiling and frying on the content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in muscle tissue of four fish species. Food Chemistry, 101(4), 1694–1700.

Gokoglu, N., Yerlikaya, P. & Cengiz, E. (2004). Effects of cooking methods on the proximate composition and minerals content of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Food Chemistry, 84(1), 19-22.

Gonzalez-Fandos, E., Garcia-Linares, M.C., Villaniro-Rodriguez, A., Garcia-Arias, M.T., Garcia-Fernandez, M.C. (2004). Evaluation of the microbiological safety and sensory quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) processed by the sous vide method. Food Microbiology, 21(2), 193-201.

Google Earth (2022). Egirdir Lake in Turkey. Satellite image of the region where the crayfish used in the study was fished.,0,0a,22251752.77375655d,35y,0h,0t,0r [Accessed Mar. 10, 2022].

Guggisberg, D., Risse, M.C. & Hadorn, R. (2012). Determination of Vitamin B12 in Meat Products by RP-HPLC After Enrichment and Purification on an Immunoaffinity Column. Meat Science, 90 (2), 279-283.

Her Majesty’s Stationery Office-HMSO (1994). Nutritional aspects of cardiovascular disease. Report of the Cardiovascular Review Group Committee on medical aspects of food policy. Report on Health and Social Subjects (Lond), 46, 1-186.

Hicsonmez, H. (2010). Guney Karadeniz Selfi’nde Biotada Ultra Trace (Eser) Elementler. Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management. Master Thesis. In Turkish, p.99.

Hosseini, H., Mahmoudzadeh, M., Rezaei, M., Mahmoudzadeh, L., Khaksar, R., Karimian Khosroshahi, N., Babakhani, A. (2014). Effect of different cooking methods on mineral, vitamins and nutritional quality on Kutum roach (Rutilus kutum). Food Chemistry, 148, 86-91.

Humaid, S., Nayyar, D., Bolton, J., Perkins, B. & Skonberg, D.I. (2020). Refrigerated shelf-life evaluation of high pressure processed, raw and sous vide cooked lobster. High Pressure Research, 40(3) 444–463.

Hwang, D-F, Liang, W-P, Shiau, C-Y, Chiou, T-K & Jeng, S-S. (1997). Seasonal variations of free amino acids in the muscle and viscera of small abolone Haliotis diversicolor, Fisheries Science, 63(4), 625-629.

ISO 12966-2. (2011). Animal and vegetable fats and oils, Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters, Part 2: Preparation of methyl esters of fatty acids, Edition:1, p.15.

Iwasaki, M. & Harada, R. (1985). Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of the Roe and Muscle of Selected Marine Species. Journal of Food Science, 50 (6), 1585-1587.

Kall, M.A. (2003). Determination of total vitamin B6 in foods by isocratic HPLC: a comparison with microbiological analysis. Food Chemistry, 82(2), 315-327.

Kalogeropoulos, N, Andrikopoulos, N.K. & Hassapidou, M. (2004). Dietary evaluation of Mediterranean fish and molluscs pan-fried in virgin olive oil. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84(13) 1750-1758.

Kaya, Y., Turan, H. & Erdem, M.E. (2008). Fatty acid and amino acid composition of raw and hot smoked sturgeon (Huso huso, L.1758). International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 59 (7-8) 635-642.

Keskin, H. (1959). Components of food and beverages. Food Chemistry, Part 2: Proteins, Murettibiye Press, Istanbul, In Turkish. p. 10-35.

Kocatepe, D., Turan, H., Taşkaya, G., Kaya, Y., Erden, R. & Erdogdu, F. (2011). Effects of cooking methods on the proximate composition of black sea anchovy (Engrauli encrasicolus, Linnaeus 1758). Food, 36(2) 71-75.

Liu, F., Dong, X., Shen, S., Shi, Y., Ou, Y., Cai, W., Chen, Y. & Zhu, B. (2021). Changes in the digestion properties and protein conformation of sturgeon myofibrillar protein treated by low temperature vacuum heating during in vitro digestion. Food & Function, 12 (15), 6981-6991.

Mai, J., Shimp, J., Weihrauch, J. & Kinsella, J.E. (1978). Lipids of fish fillets: Changes following cooking by different methods. Journal of Food Science, 43(6), 1669-1674.

Manz, U. & Philipp, K. (1981). A method for the routine determination of tocopherols in animal feed and human foodstuffs with the aid of high performance liquid chromatography. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 51(4) 342-8.

Medina, I., Sacchi, R. & Aubourg, S. (1994). 13C Nuclear magnetic resonance monitoring of free fatty acid release after fish thermal processing. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society (JAOCS), 71(5), 479-482.

Merill, A.L. & Watt, B.K. (1973). Energy Value of Foods: Basis and Derivation. Agriculture Handbook No. 74, ARS United States Department of Agriculture, Washington DC, p.1-105.

Mohan, C.O., Ravishankar, C.N. & Srinivasa Gopal, T.K. (2017). Effect of Vacuum Packaging

and Sous Vide Processing on the Quality of Indian White Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus) During Chilled Storage. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 26(10), 1280-1292.

Mohanty, B., Mahanty, A., Ganguly, S., Sankar, T.V., Chakraborty, K., Rangasamy, A. et al. (2014). Amino Acid Compositions of 27 Food Fishes and Their Importance in Clinical Nutrition. Journal of Amino Acids, ID 269797. p.7.

Momenzadeh, Z., Khodanazary, A. & Ghanemi, K. (2017). Effect of different cooking methods on vitamins, minerals and nutritional quality indices of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 11(2) 434–441.

Moradi, Y., Bakar, J., Motalebi, A.A., Syed Muhamad, S.H. & Man, Y.C. (2011). A review on fish lipid: Composition and changes during cooking methods. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 20(4), 379-390.

Ndaw, S., Bergaentzle, M., Aoudé-Werner, D., Hasselmann, C. (2002). Enzymatic extraction procedure for the liquid chromatographic determination of niacin in foodstuffs. Food Chemistry, 78(1), 129-134.

Nieva-Echevarría, B., Goicoechea, E. & Guillén, M.D. (2017). Effect of the presence of protein on lipolysis and lipid oxidation occurring during in vitro digestion of highly unsaturated oils. Food Chemistry, 235, 21– 33.

Otles, S. & Sengor, G.F. (2005). Effect of Various Technological Processes on The Fatty Acid Composition of Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, L.). International Journal of Food Engineering, 1(3), 5.

Pigott, G.M. & Tucker, B.W. (1987). Science opens new horizons form marine lipids in human nutrition. Food Reviews International, 3(1-2), 105-138.

Pigott, G.M. (1989). The need to improve omega-3 content of cultured fish. World Aquaculture, 20 (1), 63-68.

Prato, E., Biandolino, F., Parlapiano, I., Papa, L., Denti, G. & Fanelli, G. (2019). Seasonal changes of commercial traits, proximate and fatty acid compositions of the scallop Flexopecten glaber from the Mediterranean Sea (Southern Italy). PeerJ, 7:e5810.

Rathod, N.B., Kulawik, P., Ozogul, Y., Ozogul, F. & Bekhit AE-DA. (2022). Recent developments in non-thermal processing for seafood and seafood products: cold plasma, pulsed electric field and high hydrostatic pressure. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 57(2), 774–790.

Reames E. (2012). Nutritional benefits of seafood. The Southern Regional Aquaculture Center, SRAC Publication, No 7300.p1-6.

Reyes, E.S.P & Subryan, L. (1989). An improved method of simultaneous HPLC assay of riboflavin and thiamin in selected cereal product. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 2 (1) 41-47.

Rostini, I. & Pratama, R.I. (2018). Effect of steaming on physical and chemical characteristics White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from Indramayu Waters. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 176(1), 012046.

Sarojnalini, C. & Hei, A.C. (2019). Fish as an Important Functional Food for Quality Life. IntechOpen, 1-19.

Sengor, G.F.U., Alakavuk, D.U. & Tosun, S.Y. (2013). Effect of cooking methods on proximate composition, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol content of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 22(2), 160–167.

Shahidi, F., Rubin, L.J. & D’Souza, L.A. (1986). Meat flavor volatiles: A review of the composition, techniques of analysis, and sensory evaluation. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 24(2), 141-243.

Shirai, T., Hirakawa, Y., Koshikawa, Y., Toraishi, H., Terayama, M., Suzuki, T. & Hirano, T. (1996). Taste components of Japanese spiny and shovel-nosed lobsters. Fisheries Science, 62(2), 283-287.

Simopoulos, A.P. (2002). The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother, 56(8), 365–379.

Simopoulos, A.P. (2001). The Mediterranean Diets: What is so special about the diet of Greece? The Scientific Evidence. Journal of Nutrition, pp. 3065-3073.

Simopoulos, A.P. (2008). The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio, genetic variation, and cardiovascular disease. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 17 (S1), 131-134.

Steffens W. (1997). Effects of variation in essential fatty acids in fish feeds on nutritive value of freshwater fish for humans. Aquaculture, 151(1-4), 97-119.

Steppeler, C., Haugen, J.E., Rødbotten, R. & Kirkhus, B.(2016).Formation of malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal, and 4-hydroxyhexenal during in vitro digestion of cooked beef, pork, chicken, and salmon. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64 (2), 487-496.

Su, X.Q. & Babb, J.R. (2007). The effect of cooking process on the total lipid and n-3 LC-PUFA contents of Australian Bass Strait scallops, Pecten fumatus. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 16 Suppl (1)407-11.

Sumbuloglu, K. & Sumbuloglu, V. (1990). Biyoistatistik, Hatiboglu Yayinevi, Istanbul, Turkey. 975-7527-12-2.

Tamari, Y. & Tsuchiya, K. (2004). Lithium content of fish in the ocean: Investigation of raw, drying and canned fish available. Biomedical Research on Trace Elements, 15(3), 248-258.

Thorat, M.M. (2017). Biochemical Contents of Nutritional Values of Clarias batrachus. International Journal of Life Sciences, 5 (3), 481-482.

TUIK (2020). Turkish Statistical Institute - Fishery Products. Production quantity of inland water products. [Accessed Mar. 10, 2022].

Turan, H, & Kocatepe, D. (2014). Effects of traditional cooking methods on the fatty acid composition of bonito (Sarda sarda, Bloch 1793). Indian Journal of Animal Research, 48(2), 177-181.

Unusan, N. (2007). Change in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid contents in muscle tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after cooking. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 42(9) 1087-1093.

Venugopal, V. (2018). Nutrients and nutraceuticals from seafood. J.-M. Mérillon, K.G. Ramawat (eds). Bioactive Molecules in Food, Reference Series in Phytochemistry, Springer, Cham, pp 1-45.

Watanabe, T., Kiron, V. & Satoh, S. (1997). Trace minerals in fish nutrition. Aquaculture, 151(1-4), 185-207.

Weber, J., Bochi, V.C., Riberio, C.P., Victoria, A de M & Emanuelli T. (2008). Effect of different cooking methods on the oxidation, proximate and fatty acid composition of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) fillets. Food Chemistry, 106(1), 140-146.

Wojtowicz, M.B. (1974). Information on production of whole, frozen lobsters. New Series Circular No. 47. Environment Canada, Fisheries and Marine Service, Halifax Laboratory, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Xu, Y., Chen, Y., Cao, Y., Huang, W., Zhang, S., Xia, W. & Jiang, Q. (2016). Effect of steam cooking on textural properties and taste compounds of shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis). Food Science and Technology Research, 22(1) 75-81.

Yilmaz, A.B., Sangun, M.K., Yaglioglu, D. & Turan, C. (2010). Metals (major, essential to non-essential) composition of the different tissues of three demersal fish species from Iskenderun Bay, Turkey. Food Chemistry, 123(2), 410-415.

Yin, Y., Zhou, L., Pereira, J., Zhang, J. & Zhang, W. (2020). Insights into digestibility and peptide profiling of beef muscle proteins with different cooking methods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 68(48),14243-14251.




How to Cite

Ozturan, S., & Sengor, G. F. U. (2022). Comparision of cooking processes on nutritional value of fresh and cooked-blast chilled crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823). Sustainable Aquatic Research, 1(1), 1–19.



Original Articles