From concept to impact of a multispecies synbiotic for sustainable shrimp farming




Synbiotic, Aquaculture, Shrimp, Gut environment, Immune system, Probioitc


Aquaculture is the fastest growing food producing sector in the world. India is second largest seafood producer in the world. Disease management is the big challenge in shrimp aquaculture. Even with the availability of specific pathogen-free (SPF) seeds, Vibriosis and Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) still affect the culture causing substantial loss. Controlling pathogens in an ecofriendly and sustainable method is the desirable direction. In this context numerous research reports pointed out options such as probiotic, prebiotic, phytobiotic, phage therapy for disease management but synbiotic related reports are still limited. Synbiotic applications provide numerous beneficial effects for shrimp culture such as improving the immune system, disease resistance, pathogen control, maintenance of gut microbial population, and increased digestive enzymes. Synbiotic role and activity is effective and efficient than individual probiotic and prebiotic supplements. It is the more effective alternative for antibiotics and chemotherapeutics. This paper presents insights into the concept of synbiotic applications, performs a review of the literature, and discusses the efficacy of a multispecies synbiotic product Ecoforce in growth promotion and disease control in the shrimp farming industry.

Author Biographies

Arun Jeganathan, TIL Biosciences (The Animal Health Division of Tablets (India) Limited), 72, Marshalls Road, Chennai 600 008, Tamil Nadu, India

Manager - Technical 

TIL Biosciences (Animal Health Division)

Tablets India Limited

Chennai, India

Godfred Ponraj Jeyaraj, TIL Biosciences (The Animal Health Division of Tablets (India) Limited), 72, Marshalls Road, Chennai 600 008, Tamil Nadu, India


TIL Biosciences (Animal Health Division)

Tablets India Limited

Chennai, India

Vijayaram Seerengaraj , Xiamen Key Laboratory for Feed Quality Testing and Safety Evaluation, Fisheries College, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021, China

Research Associate

Xiamen Key Laboratory for Feed Quality Testing and Safety Evaluation, Fisheries College, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021, China


Amenyogbe, E., Chen, G., Wang, Z., Huang, J., Huang, B., & Li, H. (2020). The exploitation of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in aquaculture: present study, limitations and future directions: a review. Aquaculture International, 28(3), 1017-1041.

Austin, B., Lawrence A.L., Can., E., Carboni, C., Crockett, J., Demirtaş Erol, N., Dias Schleder, D., Jatobá, A., Kayış, Ş., Karacalar, U., Kizak, V., Kop, A., Thompson, K., Mendez Ruiz, C. A., Serdar, O., Seyhaneyildiz Can, S., Watts, S. & Yücel Gier, G. (2022). Selected topics in sustainable aquaculture research: Current and future focus. Sustainable Aquatic Research, 1(2), 74-122.

Behera, D. P., & Nayak, L. (2011). Role of probiotics in sustainable shrimp farming along Balasore coast, Orissa. Bioscan, 6(1), 97-102.

Bogut, I., Milakovic, Z., Bukvic, Z., Brkic, S., & Zimmer, R. (1998). Influence of probiotic (Streptococcus faecium M74) on growth and content of intestinal microflora in carp (Cyprinus carpio). Czech Journal of Animal Science, 43, 231-235.

Butt, U. D., Lin, N., Akhter, N., Siddiqui, T., Li, S., & Wu, B. (2021). Overview of the latest developments in the role of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in shrimp aquaculture. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 114, 263-281.

Charalampopoulos, D., & Rastall, R. A. (Eds.). (2009). Prebiotics and probiotics science and technology (Vol. 1). Springer Science & Business Media.

Elumalai, V. Ramesh, G., Mohan, D., Jayalakshmi, S., Subbulakshmi, G., Raffi, S.M. (2013). Efficiency of probiotics (Ecoforce) in the growth and survival of Peneaus monodon. Arthropods, 2(4), 231.

Farzanfar, A. (2006). The use of probiotics in shrimp aquaculture. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, 48(2), 149-158.

Gasbarrini, G., Bonvicini, F., & Gramenzi, A. (2016). Probiotics history. Journal of clinical gastroenterology, 50, S116-S119. 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000697

Gatesoupe, F. J. (1999). The use of probiotics in aquaculture. Aquaculture, 180(1-2),147-165.

George, E. G. J., Jeyaraj, G. P. & Arumugham, V. R. (2019). Efficacy of Ecoforce as a potential synbiotic against the ubiquitous pathogen, Vibrio species in the pacific white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei culture. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences, 21(1), 74-83

Gomez-Gil, B., Roque, A. (1998). Selection of probiotic bacteria for use in aquaculture. In Flegel, T.W. (Ed.), Advances in Shrimp Biotechnology. National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkok.

Huang, Y. F., Liu, P. Y., Chen, Y. Y., Nong, B. R., Huang, I. F., Hsieh, K. S., & Chen, K. T. (2014). Three-combination probiotics therapy in children with salmonella and rotavirus gastroenteritis. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 48(1) 37-42. 10.1097/MCG.0b013e31828f1c6e

Jamal, M. T., Abdulrahman, I. A., Al Harbi, M., & Chithambaran, S. (2019). Probiotics as alternative control measures in shrimp aquaculture: A review. Journal of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, 7(3), 6-7. 10.7324/JABB.2019.70313

Kesarcodi-Watson, A., Kaspar, H., Lategan, M. J., & Gibson, L. (2008). Probiotics in aquaculture: the need, principles and mechanisms of action and screening processes. Aquaculture, 274(1), 1-14.

Khushi, S. S., Sumon, M. S., Ahmmed, M. K., Zilani, M. N. H., Ahmmed, F., Giteru, S. G., & Sarower, M. G. (2022). Potential probiotic and health fostering effect of host gut-derived Enterococcus faecalis on freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquaculture and Fisheries, 7(1), 59-66.

Knipe, H., Temperton, B., Lange, A., Bass, D., & Tyler, C. R. (2021). Probiotics and competitive exclusion of pathogens in shrimp aquaculture. Reviews in Aquaculture, 13(1), 324-352.

Kwoji, I. D., Aiyegoro, O. A., Okpeku, M., & Adeleke, M. A. (2021). Multi-Strain Probiotics: Synergy among isolates enhances biological activities. Biology, 10(4), 322.

Lakshmi, B., Viswanath, B., & Sai Gopal, D. V. R. (2013). Probiotics as antiviral agents in shrimp aquaculture. Journal of Pathogens, 2013, Article ID 424123, 1-13.

Madhana, S., Kanimozhi, G., & Panneerselvam, A. (2021). Probiotics in Shrimp Aquaculture. In Advances in Probiotics (pp. 309-325). Academic Press.

Mohan, M.S., Harold, P. G., & Siva Reddy, K.V. (2011). Effect of probiotics on growth and survival of Penaeus monodon in the culture ponds of Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 1(2), 89-92.

Nimrat, S., Khaopong, W., Sangsong, J., Boonthai, T., & Vuthiphandchai, V. (2021). Dietary administration of Bacillus and yeast probiotics improves the growth, survival, and microbial community of juvenile whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 33(1), 15-31.

Pattukumar, V., Kanmani, P., Yuvaraj, N., Paari, A., & Arul, V. (2013). Improved resistance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon treated with Streptococcus phocae PI80 and Bacillus subtilis. The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidegh, 65.

Pérez-Sánchez, T., Mora-Sánchez, B., & Balcázar, J. L. (2018). Biological approaches for disease control in aquaculture: advantages, limitations and challenges. Trends in Microbiology, 26(11), 896-903.

Puvanasundram, P., Chong, C. M., Sabri, S., Yusoff, M. S., & Karim, M. (2021). Multi-strain probiotics: Functions, effectiveness and formulations for aquaculture applications. Aquaculture Reports, 21, 100905.

Rajinikanth, T., Ramasamy, P., & Ravi, V. (2010). Efficacy of probiotics, growth promotors and disinfectants in shrimp grow out farms. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 2(3), 208-215.

Ringø, E., and S. K. Song. (2016). Application of dietary supplements (synbiotics and probiotics in combination with plant products and β‐glucans) in aquaculture. Aquaculture Nutrition 22(1) 4-24.

Ringø, E. (2020). Probiotics in shellfish aquaculture. Aquaculture and Fisheries, 5(1), 1-27.

Sahu, M. K., Swarnakumar, N. S., Sivakumar, K., Thangaradjou, T., & Kannan, L. (2008). Probiotics in aquaculture: importance and future perspectives. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 48(3), 299-308. 10.1007/s12088-008-0024-3

Seo, G., Shimizu, K., Sasatsu, M. & Kono, M. (1989) Inhibition of growth of some enteropathogenic strains in mixed cultures of Streptococcus faecalis and Clostridium butyricum. Microbios Letters, 40, 151–160.

SAP - Society of aquaculture professionals (2023). Shrimp crop review 2022. Aquaculture Spectrum, 6(1), 56-58.

Sumon, M. S., Ahmmed, F., Khushi, S. S., Ahmmed, M. K., Rouf, M. A., Chisty, M. A. H., & Sarower, M. G. (2018). Growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and immune response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii fed with probiotic Clostridium butyricum incorporated diets. Journal of King Saud University-Science, 30(1), 21-28.

Sundaram, M., Panigrahi, A., Ganesh, J., Rekha, P. N., Sivagnanam, S., Rajamanickam, S., & Gopal, C. (2017). Evaluation of different probiotic strains for growth performance and immunomodulation in Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei Boone, 1931. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 64 (Special Issue), 89-96.

Swain, S. M., Singh, C., & Arul, V. (2009). Inhibitory activity of probiotics Streptococcus phocae PI80 and Enterococcus faecium MC13 against Vibriosis in shrimp Penaeus monodon. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 25(4), 697-703.

Timmerman, H. M., Koning, C. J., Mulder, L., Rombouts, F. M., & Beynen, A. C. (2004). Monostrain, multistrain and multispecies probiotics—a comparison of functionality and efficacy. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 96(3), 219-233. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.05.012

Tripathi, S.K. (2020) Shrimp aqua-chemical market scenario in Gujarat: A survey report. International Journal of Commerce and Economics, 2(2), 31-34.

Van Hai, N. and Fotedar, R. (2010). A review of probiotics in shrimp aquaculture. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 22(3), 251-266.

Wee, W., Hamid, N. K. A., Mat, K., Khalif, R. I. A. R., Rusli, N. D., Rahman, M. M., & Wei, L. S. (2022). The effects of mixed prebiotics in aquaculture: A review. Aquaculture and Fisheries.

Zorriehzahra, M. J., Delshad, S. T., Adel, M., Tiwari, R., Karthik, K., Dhama, K., & Lazado, C. C. (2016). Probiotics as beneficial microbes in aquaculture: an update on their multiple modes of action: a review. Veterinary Quarterly, 36(4), 228-241.




How to Cite

Jeganathan, A., Jeyaraj, G. P., & Seerengaraj , V. (2023). From concept to impact of a multispecies synbiotic for sustainable shrimp farming. Sustainable Aquatic Research, 2(2), 118–128.



Original Articles