Significant enhancement of survival, intestinal digestive enzymes, vitellogenin content, immune response, and antioxidant defense system of Artemia urmiana fed with garlic (Allium sativum) powder




Antioxidant status, Artemia, Digestive enzymes, Garlic, Immune response


Garlic is widely known for its antimicrobial, antioxidant, and immunostimulant properties. The present study aimed to assess the effects of garlic (Allium sativum) powder on the survival, growth, immunological response, antioxidant activities, and reproductive performance of Artemia urmiana. Three diets containing 5%, 10%, and 20% garlic powder feed, and a control diet (C) without garlic were used through a completely randomized design (treatments with triplicates). Twelve 60-L plastic tanks with a density of 20 nauplii per milliliter were used. Artemia were fed with Baker's yeast (1.25 mg yeast per one thousand nauplii) during the 30-day experiment. The study showed that 10% garlic treatment resulted in the highest survival rate (P < 0.05). The growth factor (dry weight) remained unchanged throughout the experiment. The activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase, lipase, and alkaline phosphatase), immune response (lysozyme and phenoloxidase activities), and antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and catalase) considerably increased in the treated groups (P < 0.05). Supplementation of A. urmiana diet with varying concentrations of garlic powder significantly increased the level of vitellogenin. However, no significant difference was found in nauplii and cyst production across all the groups. The study suggested that garlic, especially at 10% added feed, might effectively enhance the survival rate, immune response, digestive enzyme activity, antioxidant status, and vitellogenin content in A. urmiana.


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How to Cite

Ahmadniaye Motlagh, H., Gheibdust, M. ., Yilmaz, E. ., Baghalian, A. ., Safari, O. ., & Zahedi, S. . (2023). Significant enhancement of survival, intestinal digestive enzymes, vitellogenin content, immune response, and antioxidant defense system of Artemia urmiana fed with garlic (Allium sativum) powder. Sustainable Aquatic Research, 2(3), 182–202.



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